Glossary

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  • An endogenous steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species. It belongs…
  • A
  • ADAPTOGEN
    Something that improves the immune system, improves resistance to stress, and supports balance and homeostasis of the body.
  • ALDOSTERONE
    A steroid hormone and mineralocorticoid produced by the outer section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal…
  • ALLERGEN
    A substance that produces an allergic reaction.
  • ANALGESIC
    A natural or synthetic substance that alleviates or removes pain.  
  • ANTI-INFLAMMATORY
    Reduces inflammation
  • ANTI-OXIDANT
    Inhibits oxidation which slows or prevents cell deterioration.
  • ANTIBACTERIAL
    Destroys or inhibits the growth of bacteria.
  • ANTIBIOTICS
    Destroys or inhibits growth of microorganisms.  
  • ANTIFUNGAL
    Destroys or inhibits growth of fungi
  • ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    A disease of the arteries characterized by the deposition of plaques of fatty material on their inner walls.
  • AYURVEDA
    The ancient Indian science of life and self-healing.  
  • B
  • BETA-CAROTENE
    The orange-yellow plant pigment that is converted to Vitamin A by the body.
  • BILE
    A thick, bitter fluid stored in the gallbladder and secreted by the liver that aids in fat digestion.
  • BITTER
    One of the five tastes in Chinese medicine.  It is yin, cooling taste, which clears, improves appetite, detoxifies, and…
  • BLOOD SUGAR
    Concentration of glucose in the blood.
  • BLOOD TONIC
    Improves and maintains the quality of immediate nourishment available to the body (ex: beans, beets, dark leafy greens).  
  • BODY MASS INDEX
    The body mass index (BMI) is a measure of relative size based on the mass and height of an…
  • C
  • CALCIUM
    The most abundant mineral in the human body.  99% is stored in bones and teeth, while the remaining is…
  • CHI or (QI)
    The Chinese term for vital energy, or life force of an organism.  Pronounced chee.  Called prana in India and…
  • CHI TONIC
    Improves and maintains the quality and quantity of available and usable energy in the body (ex: beef, ginseng, sweet…
  • CHINESE MEDICINE
    Traditional Asian medicine based upon Yin-Yang Theory, Five Elements, Five Flavors, four directions, and the twelve meridians.
  • CHOLESTEROL
    A steroid alcohol found in most body tissues, including the blood and nerves. Cholesterol and its derivatives are important…
  • COFACTOR
    A non-protein chemical compound that is required for the protein’s biological activity. These proteins are commonly enzymes,  considered “helper…
  • COLD SIGNS
    Major symptoms: coldness causes contraction, difficulty bending backwards or moving around, pain is intense and fixed; chill sensations, aversion…
  • COOKED FOOD
    Food that is easier for the digestive system to assimilate.  Cooking food does not necessarily destroy all nutrients.  Prolonged…
  • COOLING
    The property of clearing toxins and reducing internal heat.
  • COQ-10
    This oil-soluble, vitamin-like substance is present in most eukaryotic cells, primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of…
  • CORTISOL
    A steroid hormone and glucocorticoid produced in humans by the zona fasciculata or the adrenal cortex within the adrenal…
  • D
  • DEFENSIVE QI
    A type of Qi (energy, life-force) in our body also known as “Wei Qi” meaning to “defend” or “protect.”…
  • DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS
    Major symptoms: Yin symptoms – person is frail, weak, withdrawn, with a soft voice, pale or sickly yellow complexion…
  • DHEA
    An important endogenous and the most abundant circulating steroid hormone in humans, produced in the adrenal glands, the gonads,…
  • DIABETES
    A metabolic disease in which the body’s inability to produce enough insulin causes elevated levels of glucose in the…
  • DIAPHORETIC
    A substance that induces perspiration and increases elimination through the skin.  
  • DIURETIC
    The property of increasing urination through action upon the kidneys and bladder.
  • DOSHA
    An essential biological energy or structure in Ayurveda.  Health is determined by balancing our three primary doshas, vata, pitta,…
  • E
  • EDEMA
    Abnormal accumulation of serum fluid in an organ or body cavity.
  • ESSENCE
    Essence aka Jing is one of the four vital substances that form the mind body connection in Chinese Medicine.…
  • ESTROGEN
    A group of steroid hormones that promote the development and maintenance of female characteristics of the body. Such hormones…
  • ESTROGENIC
    A plant substance similar in effect to the hormone estrogen.
  • EXCESS
    Signs of general excess: Yang symptoms – person is robust, energetic, extroverted, with a normal to loud voice and…
  • EXPECTORANT
    A substance that promotes the discharge of phlegm from the respiratory tract.  
  • EXTERNAL PATHOGENIC FACTORS
    Six kinds of climatic changes: wind, cold, summer heat, damp, dryness, and fire, that usually invade from outside the…
  • F
  • FERRITIN
    A ubiquitous intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion. The protein is produced by…
  • FIVE FLAVORS
    The five tastes in chinese medicine are sour, bitter, sweet (also bland), pungent, and salty.
  • FOOD QI
    A type of Qi (energy, life-force) in our body, also known as “Gu Qi” (meaning “Qi of Grains” or…
  • FRESH FOOD
    Produce that will give the most energy at the time it is ingested as compared to it’s overly ripened,…
  • G
  • GATHERING QI
    A type of Qi (energy, life-force) in our body (also known as “Zong Qi” or “Chest-Qi”) which is derived…
  • GENETICALLY MODIFIED
    An organism that contains altered, manipulated, or added genetic material.  Also known as bioengineered or genetically modified organism (GMO).
  • GLYCOLYSIS
    The metabolic pathway that converts glucose, into pyruvate. The free energy released in this process is used to form…
  • GLYPHOSPHATE
    A broad-spectrum systemic herbicide used to kill weeds, especially annual broadleaf weeds and grasses known to compete with commercial…
  • H
  • HEAT SIGNS
    Major Symptoms: aversion to heat, attracted to cold, bright red tongue, yellow coating on tongue, red face, red eyes,…
  • HERBOLOGY
    The study of herbs and their use as medicinal and culinary agents.  
  • HMG-COA REDUCTASE
    The rate-controlling enzyme of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic pathway that produces cholesterol.
  • HORMONES
    A substance produced in the endocrine glands and transported by the blood to another site to affect a physiological…
  • HYDROGENATION
    A process of treating liquid oil with hydrogen gas to change its molecular structure.  This saturates the fatty acids…
  • HYPERTENSION
    High blood pressure
  • HYPOGLYCEMIA
    A lack of sugar in the blood that causes muscle weakness, sweating, and mental confusion.
  • I
  • IMMUNE SYSTEM
    The body’s system that recognizes and defends against foreign materials such as allergens and infectious organisms.  
  • INSULIN
    A hormone produced in the pancreas by the islets of Langerhans that regulates the amount of glucose in the…
  • INULIN
    Not to be confused with insulin, inulin is a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides (carbohydrate molecules) produced by many…
  • IRON
    65% of the iron in the body is bound up in hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells. About 4%…
  • J
  • JING
    Jing, or Essence, is one of the four vital substances that form the mind-body connection in Chinese Medicine. Essence…
  • K
  • KAPHA
    Ayurvedic term for a waterlike biological energy and constitution that is cold, wet, slow moving, heavy, solid, stable, and…
  • L
  • LACTATION
    Milk secretion from the mammary glands.
  • LAXATIVE
    A substance that promotes bowel movements.
  • LEPTIN
    A hormone in the body that controls hunger and feelings of satiety. It is secreted by adipose (fat) tissue,…
  • LIPIDS
    Fatty components present in most tissues and in the blood.
  • LUTEIN
    Lutein and zeaxanthin are two anti-oxidants and yellow carotenoids found in the eye; they filter out harmful blue light…
  • M
  • MAGNESIUM
    A mineral that regulates 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It is one of the most common enzyme co-factors…
  • MERIDIANS
    One of twelve vital organs and pathways or channels of Chinese medicine that run along the body and in…
  • MONOUNSATURATED FATS
    Fatty acids that have one double bone in the fatty acid chain with the remainder carbon atoms being single-bonded.…
  • MUCUS
    A slippery, sticky, thick secretion produced by, and covering, the internal organs and various body cavities that are exposed…
  • N
  • NUTRACEUTICAL
    A phytochemical with pharmaceutically recognized healing properties.  
  • NUTRITIVE
    A food that nourishes the body.
  • NUTRITIVE QI
    A type of Qi (energy, life-force) in our body also known as “Ying Qi” which literaly means nutritive or…
  • O
  • OMEGA-3
    Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) important for normal metabolism. The three types of omega-3 fatty acids involved…
  • ORIGINAL QI
    A type of Qi (energy, life-force) in our body closely related to Essence, but in the form of Qi,…
  • OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
    The metabolic pathway in which the mitochondria in cells use their structure, enzymes, and energy released by the oxidation…
  • P
  • PEONY
    Any of various plants or shrubs of the genus Paeonia, having large, showy flowers, as the widely cultivated species…
  • PERISTALSIS
    Involuntary, wavelike muscle contractions of the digestive tract that move its contents.
  • PHLEGM
    Thick mucus secreted by the respiratory tract lining.
  • PITTA
    Ayurvedic term for firelike biological energy and constitution, typified as hot, light, clear, sharp, and oily.  Foods that reduce…
  • POLYUNSATURATED FATS
    Lipids in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon-carbon double bonds. Polyunsaturated fat can be found…
  • PREDIABETES
    A condition in which blood sugar is high, but not high enough to be Type 2 diabetes.
  • PROBIOTIC
    Microorganisms believed to provide health benefits when consumed. The term probiotic is currently used to name ingested microorganisms associated…
  • PROCESSED FOOD
    Foods that resemble nothing that can be grown in a garden.  The food is usually changed and modified through…
  • PROGESTERONE
    An endogenous steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species. It belongs…
  • PROPHYLACTIC
    An agent that protects or defends against disease.
  • PUNGENT
    Spicy, one of the five tastes in Chinese medicine; it is yang (warming, dispersing, drying).  Moves energy from the…
  • PURGATIVE
    A strong laxative.
  • Q
  • QI
    Pronounced chee, is one of the four vital substances that form the mind-body connection in Chinese Medicine. It can…
  • R
  • RAJASIC
    Ayurvedic term for fiery foods that excite the appetite and stimulate outward motion, creativity, passion, and aggression.
  • RAW FOOD
    Whole food that is not cooked.  People with strong digestion and constitution better can better assimilate raw fruits and…
  • REFINED FOOD
    Food that has something taken away from it.  (e.g.  orange juice, which is part of the orange.)
  • REJUVENATE
    Restore vitality.
  • RESTORATIVE
    A substance that revives strength.
  • S
  • SALTY
    One of the five tastes in Chinese medicine; it is yin (cooling and moistening) and spports the kidney and…
  • SATTVIC
    Ayurvedic term for foods that are pure and fresh and clear the mind.
  • SATURATED FATS
    Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain. That is,…
  • SEDATIVE
    A substance that reduces tension by lowering the functional activity of an organ or body part.  
  • SEQUELAE
    A condition that is the consequence of a previous disease or injury.
  • SEROTONIN
    A monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), blood platelets,…
  • SOPORIFIC
    A substance that induces drowsiness or sleep.  
  • SOUR
    One of the five tastes in Chinese medicine; it is yang (warming, soothing, building, and nourishing) and supports the…
  • STATINS
    Statins are a class of drugs used to lower cholesterol levels by inhibiting the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, which plays…
  • SWEET
    One of the five tastes in Chinese medicine; it is yang (warming, soothing, building, and nourishing); supports stomach, spleen…
  • SYSTEMIC
    Affecting the entire system or body.
  • T
  • TESTOSTERONE
    A steroid hormone that stimulates development of male secondary sexual characteristics, produced mainly in the testes, but also in…
  • THERMAL NATURE
    The principle that all foods, when consumed, have an either overall cooling, neutral, or warming effect on the physical…
  • THERMAL NATURE/PROPERTY OF FOOD
    The principle that all foods, when consumed, have an either overall cooling, neutral, or warming effect on the physical…
  • TONE
    The property of strengthening and restoring an organ or muscle to normal fitness.
  • TONIC
    A substance that stimulates and increases body tone, chi, or energy in the absence of illness.  
  • TONIFY
    To invigorate, refresh, build, and strengthen.
  • TOPICAL
    A skin remedy applied directly to the afflicted area.
  • TOXIC
    Harmful or poisonous.
  • TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE
    Traditional Asian medicine based upon Yin-Yang Theory, Five Elements, Five Flavors, four directions, and the twelve meridians.
  • TRANS-FATS
    Type of unsaturated fat which are uncommon in nature but became commonly produced industrially from vegetable fats for use…
  • TRIDOSHIC
    A food that ameliorates all three body types. (See vata, pitta, and kapha.)
  • TRUE QI
    A type of Qi (energy, life-force) in our body also known as “Zhen Qi.” Gathering Qi is transformed into…
  • U
  • UBIQUINOL
    Ubiquinol is an electron-rich (reduced) form of coenzyme Q10 or CoQ-10. CoQ-10 exists in three redox states, fully oxidized…
  • V
  • VATA
    Ayurvedic term for airlike, corresponding to biological energy and constiutional type movement.  It is dry, cold, light, mobile, rough…
  • VITAL SUBSTANCES
    In Chinese Medicine, our bodies and minds work through interaction of the four Vital Substances Qi, Blood, Essence (Jing)…
  • VITAMIN
    Any of a group of organic compounds that are essential for normal growth and nutrition and are required in…
  • VITAMIN D
    A group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for enhancing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc. In humans,…
  • W
  • WARMING
    A substance that increases the body’s temperature by dispelling cold or hypoactivity and increasing vitality, circulation, and digestion.
  • WHOLE FOOD
    Food that contains only one ingredient, which is itself.  Food that has not been altered, refined, or processed.
  • Y
  • YANG
    Refers to relatively more active processes, male element, energetic, day, dry, sun, hot, exterior, and ascending.
  • YANG TONIC
    Maintains and improves our ability to generate warmth and stimulate our system; examples include cinnamon, garlic, and quinoa.  
  • YIN
    Refers to relatively passive processes, female element, nurturing, nourishing, fluids, water, night, damp, moon, cold, interior, descending.
  • YIN AND YANG THEORY
    One of the principal theories in which Traditional Chinese Medicine is strongly based upon.  The most basic definition is…
  • YIN DEFICIENCY
    Major symptoms: minor heat signs – tendency to drink small amounts of fluid often and throughout the day; dry…
  • YIN TONIC
    Improves and maintains our deepest reserves of subtle nourishment and soothes our system; examples include apples, honey, and watermelon.

  • An endogenous steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species. It belongs to a group of steroid hormones called the progestogens and is the major progestogen in the body. Progesterone is also a crucial metabolic intermediate in the production of other endogenous, including the sex hormones and the corticosteroids.

  • A
  • ADAPTOGEN

    Something that improves the immune system, improves resistance to stress, and supports balance and homeostasis of the body.

  • ALDOSTERONE

    A steroid hormone and mineralocorticoid produced by the outer section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. It plays a central role in the regulation of blood pressure mainly by acting on the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephron, increasing reabsorption of ions and water in the kidney, to cause the conservation of sodium, secretion of potassium, increase in water retention, and increase in blood pressure and blood volume.

  • ALLERGEN

    A substance that produces an allergic reaction.

  • ANALGESIC

    A natural or synthetic substance that alleviates or removes pain.

     

  • ANTI-INFLAMMATORY

    Reduces inflammation

  • ANTI-OXIDANT

    Inhibits oxidation which slows or prevents cell deterioration.

  • ANTIBACTERIAL

    Destroys or inhibits the growth of bacteria.

  • ANTIBIOTICS

    Destroys or inhibits growth of microorganisms.

     

  • ANTIFUNGAL

    Destroys or inhibits growth of fungi

  • ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    A disease of the arteries characterized by the deposition of plaques of fatty material on their inner walls.

  • AYURVEDA

    The ancient Indian science of life and self-healing.

     

  • B
  • BETA-CAROTENE

    The orange-yellow plant pigment that is converted to Vitamin A by the body.

  • BILE

    A thick, bitter fluid stored in the gallbladder and secreted by the liver that aids in fat digestion.

  • BITTER

    One of the five tastes in Chinese medicine.  It is yin, cooling taste, which clears, improves appetite, detoxifies, and stimulates secretion of digestive juices.  It supports heart and small intestine functions.

  • BLOOD SUGAR

    Concentration of glucose in the blood.

  • BLOOD TONIC

    Improves and maintains the quality of immediate nourishment available to the body (ex: beans, beets, dark leafy greens).

     

  • BODY MASS INDEX

    The body mass index (BMI) is a measure of relative size based on the mass and height of an individual. The BMI for a person is defined as their body mass divided by the square of their height—with the value universally being given in units of kg/m2

    A frequent use of the BMI is to assess how much an individual’s body weight departs from what is normal or desirable for a person of his or her height. The weight excess or deficiency may, in part, be accounted for by body fat (adipose tissue) although other factors such as muscularity also affect BMI significantly.

    Category BMI range – kg/m2 BMI Prime
    Very severely underweight less than 15 less than 0.60
    Severely underweight from 15.0 to 16.0 from 0.60 to 0.64
    Underweight from 16.0 to 18.5 from 0.64 to 0.74
    Normal (healthy weight) from 18.5 to 25 from 0.74 to 1.0
    Overweight from 25 to 30 from 1.0 to 1.2
    Obese Class I (Moderately obese) from 30 to 35 from 1.2 to 1.4
    Obese Class II (Severely obese) from 35 to 40 from 1.4 to 1.6
    Obese Class III (Very severely obese) over 40 over 1.6
  • C
  • CALCIUM

    The most abundant mineral in the human body.  99% is stored in bones and teeth, while the remaining is stored in blood, muscles, and extracellular fluid.

     

  • CHI or (QI)

    The Chinese term for vital energy, or life force of an organism.  Pronounced chee.  Called prana in India and ki in Japan.

  • CHI TONIC

    Improves and maintains the quality and quantity of available and usable energy in the body (ex: beef, ginseng, sweet potatoes).

  • CHINESE MEDICINE

    Traditional Asian medicine based upon Yin-Yang Theory, Five Elements, Five Flavors, four directions, and the twelve meridians.

  • CHOLESTEROL

    A steroid alcohol found in most body tissues, including the blood and nerves. Cholesterol and its derivatives are important constituents of cell membranes and precursors of other steroid compounds. High concentrations in the blood are thought to cause atherosclerosis.

  • COFACTOR

    A non-protein chemical compound that is required for the protein’s biological activity. These proteins are commonly enzymes,  considered “helper molecules” that assist in biochemical transformations.

  • COLD SIGNS

    Major symptoms: coldness causes contraction, difficulty bending backwards or moving around, pain is intense and fixed; chill sensations, aversion to cold weather and attracted to warmth; white complexion, copious and clear bodily secretions, clear urine, watery stools, thin watery mucus; cold hands and cold feet

  • COOKED FOOD

    Food that is easier for the digestive system to assimilate.  Cooking food does not necessarily destroy all nutrients.  Prolonged cooking at a high temperature (above 118 degrees) will destroy enzymes and water-soluble vitamins (Vitamin B Complex and Vitamin C).

     

  • COOLING

    The property of clearing toxins and reducing internal heat.

  • COQ-10

    This oil-soluble, vitamin-like substance is present in most eukaryotic cells, primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, generating energy in the form of ATP. Ninety-five percent of the human body’s energy is generated this way.

  • CORTISOL

    A steroid hormone and glucocorticoid produced in humans by the zona fasciculata or the adrenal cortex within the adrenal gland.  It is released in response to stress and low blood glucose. It functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, to suppress the immune system, and to aid in the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. It also decreases bone formation.

  • D
  • DEFENSIVE QI

    A type of Qi (energy, life-force) in our body also known as “Wei Qi” meaning to “defend” or “protect.” Defensive Qi circulates in the skin and muscles to protect and warm the body against external pathogenic factors. This is another form of True Qi that is more yang relative to Nutritive Qi (the other form of True Qi) since it flows in the outer layers of the body. Defensive Qi is in the Exterior and protects.

  • DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS

    Major symptoms: Yin symptoms – person is frail, weak, withdrawn, with a soft voice, pale or sickly yellow complexion and weak radial pulse; lumps, if any, are soft; breath is shallow; tongue coating is thin or nonexistent; pain improves with touch or pressure

  • DHEA

    An important endogenous and the most abundant circulating steroid hormone in humans, produced in the adrenal glands, the gonads, and the brain. It functions predominantly as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the androgen and estrogen sex steroids.

  • DIABETES

    A metabolic disease in which the body’s inability to produce enough insulin causes elevated levels of glucose in the blood. Type 2 diabetes, or adult onset diabetes, is one of the most common forms of diabetes.

  • DIAPHORETIC

    A substance that induces perspiration and increases elimination through the skin.

     

  • DIURETIC

    The property of increasing urination through action upon the kidneys and bladder.

  • DOSHA

    An essential biological energy or structure in Ayurveda.  Health is determined by balancing our three primary doshas, vata, pitta, and kapha.

  • E
  • EDEMA

    Abnormal accumulation of serum fluid in an organ or body cavity.

  • ESSENCE

    Essence aka Jing is one of the four vital substances that form the mind body connection in Chinese Medicine. Essence is a concentrated energy that controls growth and development, reproduction and fertility, brain function and mental health. It determines our constitutional make-up, vitality, and how long we will ultimately live. We can slow the aging process by taking Jing tonics.

  • ESTROGEN

    A group of steroid hormones that promote the development and maintenance of female characteristics of the body. Such hormones are also produced artificially for use in oral contraceptives or to treat menopausal and menstrual disorders.

  • ESTROGENIC

    A plant substance similar in effect to the hormone estrogen.

  • EXCESS

    Signs of general excess: Yang symptoms – person is robust, energetic, extroverted, with a normal to loud voice and reddish complexion, swellings in the body are hard and painful when pressed; breathing is heavy, thick tongue coating, strong radial pulse

  • EXPECTORANT

    A substance that promotes the discharge of phlegm from the respiratory tract.

     

  • EXTERNAL PATHOGENIC FACTORS

    Six kinds of climatic changes: wind, cold, summer heat, damp, dryness, and fire, that usually invade from outside the body to cause diseases. When these climatic changes are excessive and go beyond the adaptability of the human body, they may disturb the normal function of the body turning into pathogenic factors.

  • F
  • FERRITIN

    A ubiquitous intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion. The protein is produced by almost all living organisms, including algae, bacteria, higher plants, and animals. In humans, it acts as a buffer against iron deficiency and iron overload.

  • FIVE FLAVORS

    The five tastes in chinese medicine are sour, bitter, sweet (also bland), pungent, and salty.

  • FOOD QI

    A type of Qi (energy, life-force) in our body, also known as “Gu Qi” (meaning “Qi of Grains” or “Qi of Food”) that represents the first stage of the transformation of food into Qi.

  • FRESH FOOD

    Produce that will give the most energy at the time it is ingested as compared to it’s overly ripened, old state.

  • G
  • GATHERING QI

    A type of Qi (energy, life-force) in our body (also known as “Zong Qi” or “Chest-Qi”) which is derived from the combination of Food Qi with air. It supports the Heart and Lungs by controlling the blood and blood vessels, and enhancing lung function through controlling respiration.

  • GENETICALLY MODIFIED

    An organism that contains altered, manipulated, or added genetic material.  Also known as bioengineered or genetically modified organism (GMO).

  • GLYCOLYSIS

    The metabolic pathway that converts glucose, into pyruvate. The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy compounds ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).

  • GLYPHOSPHATE

    A broad-spectrum systemic herbicide used to kill weeds, especially annual broadleaf weeds and grasses known to compete with commercial crops grown around the globe. It was discovered to be a herbicide by Monsanto chemist John E. Franz in 1970. With its heavy use in agriculture, weed resistance to glyphosate is a growing problem. While glyphosate have been approved by regulatory bodies worldwide and are widely used, concerns about their effects on humans and the environment persist. Studies show that there may be correlations between exposure to glyphosphate formulations and certain cancers, including non-Hodgkins Lymphoma.

  • H
  • HEAT SIGNS

    Major Symptoms: aversion to heat, attracted to cold, bright red tongue, yellow coating on tongue, red face, red eyes, nosebleeds, high blood pressure, fast radial pulse, constipation, dry and smelly stools, dark yellow or red urine, blood in stools or urine, desire for cold liquids, mucus and phlegm thick, yellow, or green.

  • HERBOLOGY

    The study of herbs and their use as medicinal and culinary agents.

     

  • HMG-COA REDUCTASE

    The rate-controlling enzyme of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic pathway that produces cholesterol.

  • HORMONES

    A substance produced in the endocrine glands and transported by the blood to another site to affect a physiological activity such as growth.

     

  • HYDROGENATION

    A process of treating liquid oil with hydrogen gas to change its molecular structure.  This saturates the fatty acids rendering a solid or semisolid product like margarine or shortening.

     

  • HYPERTENSION

    High blood pressure

  • HYPOGLYCEMIA

    A lack of sugar in the blood that causes muscle weakness, sweating, and mental confusion.

  • I
  • IMMUNE SYSTEM

    The body’s system that recognizes and defends against foreign materials such as allergens and infectious organisms.

     

  • INSULIN

    A hormone produced in the pancreas by the islets of Langerhans that regulates the amount of glucose in the blood. The lack of insulin causes a form of diabetes.

  • INULIN

    Not to be confused with insulin, inulin is a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides (carbohydrate molecules) produced by many types of plants. It is used by some plants as a means of storing energy and is typically found in roots. Found in more than 36,000 species of plants, including wheat, onion, bananas, garlic, asparagus, and chicory, inulin is used as an energy reserve and for regulating cold resistance to withstand cold and drought during winter periods.

  • IRON

    65% of the iron in the body is bound up in hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells. About 4% is bound up in myoglobin  molecules. Around 30% of the iron in the body is stored as ferritin or hemosiderin in the spleen, the bone marrow and the liver. Iron deficiency in the body can cause anemia.

  • J
  • JING

    Jing, or Essence, is one of the four vital substances that form the mind-body connection in Chinese Medicine. Essence is a concentrated energy that controls growth and development, reproduction and fertility, brain function and mental health. It determines our constitutional make-up, vitality, and how long we will ultimately live. We can slow the aging process by taking Jing tonics.

  • K
  • KAPHA

    Ayurvedic term for a waterlike biological energy and constitution that is cold, wet, slow moving, heavy, solid, stable, and enduring.  Foods that reduce kapha are drying, warm, and eliminative with pungent, bitter, and astringent flavors.

  • L
  • LACTATION

    Milk secretion from the mammary glands.

  • LAXATIVE

    A substance that promotes bowel movements.

  • LEPTIN

    A hormone in the body that controls hunger and feelings of satiety. It is secreted by adipose (fat) tissue, so the more overweight a person is, typically, the higher his leptin levels.

  • LIPIDS

    Fatty components present in most tissues and in the blood.

  • LUTEIN

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are two anti-oxidants and yellow carotenoids found in the eye; they filter out harmful blue light and protect against macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years of age.

  • M
  • MAGNESIUM

    A mineral that regulates 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It is one of the most common enzyme co-factors in the body crucial for protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and regulating blood pressure. It is used in energy production (generating ATP), glycolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation. It is needed in calcium and potassium transport across cell membranes, vital in nerve conduction, a normal heart rhythm, and muscle contraction.

  • MERIDIANS

    One of twelve vital organs and pathways or channels of Chinese medicine that run along the body and in which Qi travels through. They include the liver, gallbladder, heart, small intestine, spleen, stomach, lungs, large intestine, kidney, bladder, pericardium and triple burner (or san-jiao).  The heart meridian, includes not only the physical heart but blood and circulation throughout the body and the heart’s interrelationship with all the other organ systems.

  • MONOUNSATURATED FATS

    Fatty acids that have one double bone in the fatty acid chain with the remainder carbon atoms being single-bonded.

     

  • MUCUS

    A slippery, sticky, thick secretion produced by, and covering, the internal organs and various body cavities that are exposed to the external environment.

  • N
  • NUTRACEUTICAL

    A phytochemical with pharmaceutically recognized healing properties.

     

  • NUTRITIVE

    A food that nourishes the body.

  • NUTRITIVE QI

    A type of Qi (energy, life-force) in our body also known as “Ying Qi” which literaly means nutritive or nourishing. This Qi nourishes the internal organs and the whole body. One of the two forms of True Qi, it is closely related to Blood and flows with Blood in the blood vessels and channels. It is relatively more Yin as it flows in the Interior and nourishes.

  • O
  • OMEGA-3

    Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) important for normal metabolism. The three types of omega-3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are α-Linolenic acid, or ALA (found in plant oils), eicosapentaenoic acid or EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid or DHA (both commonly found in marine oils).  Common sources of plant oils containing ALA fatty acids include walnuts, clary sage seed oil, algal oil, flaxseed oil, and hemp oil, while sources of animal omega-3 EPA and DHA fatty acids include fish oil, egg oil, squid oil, and krill oil.

    Mammals have a limited ability to synthesize omega-3 fats when the diet includes the shorter-chain omega-3 fatty acid, ALA to form the more important long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA, and then from EPA to the most crucial, DHA with even greater inefficiency. The ability to make the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids from ALA may also be impaired and decreased in aging. When foods are exposed to air, unsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to oxidation and rancidity.

  • ORIGINAL QI

    A type of Qi (energy, life-force) in our body closely related to Essence, but in the form of Qi, rather than fluid. It is Essence that has been transformed into Qi.

  • OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION

    The metabolic pathway in which the mitochondria in cells use their structure, enzymes, and energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to reform ATP. Although the many forms of life on earth use a range of different nutrients, ATP is the molecule that supplies energy to metabolism. Almost all aerobic organisms carry out oxidative phosphorylation.

  • P
  • PEONY

    Any of various plants or shrubs of the genus Paeonia, having large, showy flowers, as the widely cultivated species P. lactiflora. They are native to Asia, Southern Europe and Western North America.

  • PERISTALSIS

    Involuntary, wavelike muscle contractions of the digestive tract that move its contents.

  • PHLEGM

    Thick mucus secreted by the respiratory tract lining.

  • PITTA

    Ayurvedic term for firelike biological energy and constitution, typified as hot, light, clear, sharp, and oily.  Foods that reduce excess pitta are drying and cooling, with bitter, astringent, and sweet flavors.

  • POLYUNSATURATED FATS

    Lipids in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon-carbon double bonds. Polyunsaturated fat can be found mostly in nuts, seeds, fish, algae, leafy greens, and krill.

    The position of the carbon-carbon double bonds in carboxylic acid chains (containing carboxyl group COOH) in fats is designated by Greek letters. The carbon atom closest to the carboxyl group is the alpha carbon, the next carbon is the beta carbon and so on. In fatty acids the carbon atom of the methyl group (CH3) at the end of the hydrocarbon chain is called the omega carbon because omega is the last letter of the Greek alphabet. Omega-3 fatty acids have a double bond three carbons away from the methyl carbon, whereas omega-6 fatty acids have a double bond six carbons away from the methyl carbon.

  • PREDIABETES

    A condition in which blood sugar is high, but not high enough to be Type 2 diabetes.

  • PROBIOTIC

    Microorganisms believed to provide health benefits when consumed. The term probiotic is currently used to name ingested microorganisms associated with beneficial effects to humans and animals. Commonly claimed benefits of probiotics include the decrease of potentially pathogenic gastrointestinal microorganisms, the reduction of gastrointestinal discomfort, the strengthening of the immune system, the improvement of the skin’s function, the improvement of bowel regularity, the strengthening of the resistance to cedar pollen allergens, the decrease in body pathogens, the reduction of flatulence and bloating, the protection of DNA, the protection of proteins and lipids from oxidative damage, and the maintaining of individual intestinal microbiota in subjects receiving antibiotic treatment.

  • PROCESSED FOOD

    Foods that resemble nothing that can be grown in a garden.  The food is usually changed and modified through coloring, refining, bleaching, injecting, hydrogenating, genetically modifying, gassing, or growing with hormones, fertilizers, pesticides, or herbicides.

  • PROGESTERONE

    An endogenous steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species. It belongs to a group of steroid hormones called the progestogens and is the major progestogen in the body. Progesterone is also a crucial metabolic intermediate in the production of other endogenous steroids, including the sex hormoens and the corticosteroids.

  • PROPHYLACTIC

    An agent that protects or defends against disease.

  • PUNGENT

    Spicy, one of the five tastes in Chinese medicine; it is yang (warming, dispersing, drying).  Moves energy from the interior to the surface; supports the lung and colon.

  • PURGATIVE

    A strong laxative.

  • Q
  • QI

    Pronounced chee, is one of the four vital substances that form the mind-body connection in Chinese Medicine. It can be translated as our “energy”, “life-force”, “vital force”, “moving power”, “material force”, or “matter”. It is a fundamental principle in Chinese medicine and the energetic force that circulates through our physical body enabling it to function. Called prana in India and ki in Japan.

  • R
  • RAJASIC

    Ayurvedic term for fiery foods that excite the appetite and stimulate outward motion, creativity, passion, and aggression.

  • RAW FOOD

    Whole food that is not cooked.  People with strong digestion and constitution better can better assimilate raw fruits and vegetables.

  • REFINED FOOD

    Food that has something taken away from it.  (e.g.  orange juice, which is part of the orange.)

  • REJUVENATE

    Restore vitality.

  • RESTORATIVE

    A substance that revives strength.

  • S
  • SALTY

    One of the five tastes in Chinese medicine; it is yin (cooling and moistening) and spports the kidney and bladder system.

  • SATTVIC

    Ayurvedic term for foods that are pure and fresh and clear the mind.

  • SATURATED FATS

    Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain. That is, the chain of carbon atoms is fully “saturated” with hydrogen atoms. Examples of foods containing a high proportion of saturated fat include animal fat products such as cream, cheese, butter, lard, and fatty meats.

  • SEDATIVE

    A substance that reduces tension by lowering the functional activity of an organ or body part.

     

  • SEQUELAE

    A condition that is the consequence of a previous disease or injury.

  • SEROTONIN

    A monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of animals, including humans. It is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness.

  • SOPORIFIC

    A substance that induces drowsiness or sleep.

     

  • SOUR

    One of the five tastes in Chinese medicine; it is yang (warming, soothing, building, and nourishing) and supports the stomach and spleen-pancreas functions.

  • STATINS

    Statins are a class of drugs used to lower cholesterol levels by inhibiting the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, which plays a central role in the production of cholesterol in the liver, which produces about 70 percent of total cholesterol in the body.

  • SWEET

    One of the five tastes in Chinese medicine; it is yang (warming, soothing, building, and nourishing); supports stomach, spleen and pancreas functions.

  • SYSTEMIC

    Affecting the entire system or body.

  • T
  • TESTOSTERONE

    A steroid hormone that stimulates development of male secondary sexual characteristics, produced mainly in the testes, but also in the ovaries and adrenal cortex.

  • THERMAL NATURE

    The principle that all foods, when consumed, have an either overall cooling, neutral, or warming effect on the physical body.  The ability of a food to help regulate body temperature up or down.

  • THERMAL NATURE/PROPERTY OF FOOD

    The principle that all foods, when consumed, have an either overall cooling, neutral, or warming effect on the physical body.  The ability of a food to help regulate body temperature up or down.

  • TONE

    The property of strengthening and restoring an organ or muscle to normal fitness.

  • TONIC

    A substance that stimulates and increases body tone, chi, or energy in the absence of illness.

     

  • TONIFY

    To invigorate, refresh, build, and strengthen.

  • TOPICAL

    A skin remedy applied directly to the afflicted area.

  • TOXIC

    Harmful or poisonous.

  • TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    Traditional Asian medicine based upon Yin-Yang Theory, Five Elements, Five Flavors, four directions, and the twelve meridians.

  • TRANS-FATS

    Type of unsaturated fat which are uncommon in nature but became commonly produced industrially from vegetable fats for use in margarine, snack food, packaged baked goods and frying fast food starting in the 1950s. Trans fat has been shown to consistently be associated, in an intake-dependent way, with risk of coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death.

  • TRIDOSHIC

    A food that ameliorates all three body types. (See vata, pitta, and kapha.)

  • TRUE QI

    A type of Qi (energy, life-force) in our body also known as “Zhen Qi.” Gathering Qi is transformed into True Qi by our Original Qi. True Qi is the final stage of the refinement and transformation of Qi and circulates in the channels and nourishes the organs. The two different forms of True Qi are Nutritive Qi and Defensive Qi.

  • U
  • UBIQUINOL

    Ubiquinol is an electron-rich (reduced) form of coenzyme Q10 or CoQ-10.

    CoQ-10 exists in three redox states, fully oxidized (ubiquinone), partially reduced (semiquinone or ubisemiquinone), and fully reduced (ubiquinol).

  • V
  • VATA

    Ayurvedic term for airlike, corresponding to biological energy and constiutional type movement.  It is dry, cold, light, mobile, rough and clear.  Foods that reduce excess vata are demulcent, nutritive tonics with a sweet taste and warm energy;  they also calm the nervous system.

  • VITAL SUBSTANCES

    In Chinese Medicine, our bodies and minds work through interaction of the four Vital Substances Qi, Blood, Essence (Jing) and Body Fluids. These substances manifest in different degrees of “substantiality” ranging from totally material to totally non-material. Qi is the basis for all four vital substances, while the other three are all manifestations of Qi varying in degrees of substance (material to non-material). These four substances interact together to form an organism.

  • VITAMIN

    Any of a group of organic compounds that are essential for normal growth and nutrition and are required in small quantities in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the body.

  • VITAMIN D

    A group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for enhancing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc. In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D₃ and vitamin D₂.

  • W
  • WARMING

    A substance that increases the body’s temperature by dispelling cold or hypoactivity and increasing vitality, circulation, and digestion.

  • WHOLE FOOD

    Food that contains only one ingredient, which is itself.  Food that has not been altered, refined, or processed.

  • X
  • Y
  • YANG

    Refers to relatively more active processes, male element, energetic, day, dry, sun, hot, exterior, and ascending.

  • YANG TONIC

    Maintains and improves our ability to generate warmth and stimulate our system; examples include cinnamon, garlic, and quinoa.

     

  • YIN

    Refers to relatively passive processes, female element, nurturing, nourishing, fluids, water, night, damp, moon, cold, interior, descending.

  • YIN AND YANG THEORY

    One of the principal theories in which Traditional Chinese Medicine is strongly based upon.  The most basic definition is that body health and harmony is achieved through balance of yin and yang.

  • YIN DEFICIENCY

    Major symptoms: minor heat signs – tendency to drink small amounts of fluid often and throughout the day; dry mouth, tongue, cough, and breath; tends to be thin; vertigo, spasms, cramps, and pains that move; insomnia, irritability, uneasiness, worry, excess thought; fleshy pink or red tongue and cheeks; palms and soles may be hot and sweaty; night sweats; fast and thin pulse

  • YIN TONIC

    Improves and maintains our deepest reserves of subtle nourishment and soothes our system; examples include apples, honey, and watermelon.

  • Z